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Investing thousands of pounds in the recruitment and training of each new graduate recruit may be just the beginning. Choosing the wrong candidate may leave an organisation paying for years to come.
Few companies will have escaped all of the following failures: people who panic at the first sight of stress; those with long impressive qualifications who seem incapable of learning; hypochondriacs whose absentee record becomes astonishing; and the unstable person later discovered to be a thief or worse.
Less dramatic, but just as much a problem, is the person who simply does not come up to expectations, who does not quite deliver; who never becomes a high-flier or even a steady performer; the employee with a fine future behind them.
The first point to bear in mind at the recruitment stage is that people don’t change. Intelligence levels decline modestly, but change little over their working life. The same is true of abilities, such as learning languages and handling numbers.
Most people like to think that personality can change, particularly the more negative features such as anxiety, low esteem, impulsiveness or a lack of emotional warmth. But data collected over 50 years gives a clear message: still stable after all these years. Extroverts become slightly less extroverted; the acutely shy appear a little less so, but the fundamentals remain much the same. Personal crises can affect the way we cope with things: we might take up or drop drink, drugs, religion or relaxation techniques, which can be have pretty dramatic effects. Skills can be improved, and new ones introduced, but at rather different rates. People can be groomed for a job. Just as politicians are carefully repackaged through dress, hairstyle and speech specialists, so people can be sent on training courses, diplomas or experimental weekends. But there is a cost to all this which may be more than the price of the course. Better to select for what you actually see rather than attempt to change it.
( )1. The purpose of this passage is to give managers the advice that .
A. Employers should select candidates for their potential.
B. Employers should select candidates for what they are rather than for their potential.
C. Employers should select the newly graduated and send them on training courses, diplomas or experimental weekends.
D. Employers should select experienced candidates to avoid spending thousands of pounds in training.
( )2. According to the passage, which of the following statements is true? .
A. Absolutely, People don’t change during their working lives.
B. Generally, people change to a large extent during their working lives.
C. Fundamentally, people stay the same during their working lives.
D. Normally, people don’t change at all during their working lives.
( )3. What does a fine future behind them (line 3 of paragraph 3) means? .
A. Some people will certainly have a promising future though they are not very competent in their present work.
B. Some people don’t have any potential for their work though they are employed.
C. Some people can have a bright future though they can’t do their work well.
D. Some people have potential when they are employed, but never realize that potential.
( )4. According to the passage, people’s basic abilities like language learning and numeracy .
A. change little over their working life.
B. never change over their working life.
C. change fundamentally over their working life.
D. change profoundly over their working life.
( )5. The word deliver (line 2 of paragraph 3) means .
A. to take goods to the places or people they are addressed to
B. to give a speech
C. to do what you promised to do
D. to help a woman to give birth to a baby.
Trouble with Teamwork
Mary Owen examines the role and efficiency of teams
Recruiters say that candidates who can give examples ofwork they have done as members of a successful team are in asstrong a position as those who can point to significant individualachievement. Indeed, too much of the latter may suggest thatthe person concerned is not a 'team player' - one of the moreserious failings in the book of management.
The importance of being a team player is a side effect of the increasing interaction acrossdepartments and functional divides. Instead of pushing reports, paperwork and decisions aroundthe organisation, 'teams provide a dynamic meeting place where ideas can be shared and expertisemore carefully targeted at important business issues,' says Steve Gardner, in his book KeyManagement Concepts. He adds, 'Globalisation has added a further dimension to teamwork.Multinational teams now study policy decisions in the light of their impact on the local market.'
But is teamworking being overdone? 'Some managers are on as many as seven or eightdifferent teams', says Dr Cathy Bandy, a psychologist who recently ran a conference on thesubject. 'They take up so much time that managers can't get on with core tasks.' Forming teamsand having meetings has, she says, become an end in itself, almost regardless of purpose. There isalso the danger of an unhealthy desire to keep the team going after the work has been done. 'People feel the need to belong, and team membership can provide a kind of psychologicalsupport.'
The idea behind teamworking is that, when the right group of people is brought together, a'force' develops which is greater than the sum of their individual talents. This is often true in sport,where good players can reach unexpected heights as members of an international team.However,few business situations have as clear a set of objectives, or as clear criteria of success orfailure, as winning a match.
'In business, everyone needs to be clear about what the challenge is and whether a team isthe right way of approaching it', says Steve Gardner. 'Unfortunately, people focus instead on whothe members of the team should be and what roles they are to play' Dr Bandy agrees. 'There isalways a danger that teams can turn into committees,' she says. 'In a lot of situations, one or twoindividuals would be much more effective.'
So what makes a successful team? There are some general qualities that have been identified.Steve Gardnerrecommends that in every team there should be someone who is good atresearching ideas and another who is good at shooting down impractical ones. There should bethose who can resolve the tensions that naturally occur in a team and others who are focused ongetting the job done. Also, providing a clear and achievable target at the outset is the best way ofensuring that the team will move on to greater things.
13、 What point does the writer make about teamworking at the beginning of the article?
A It is the most successful form of management.
B It has changed the recruitment procedure in companies.
C Well-run teams still allow individuals to demonstrate their talents.
D Being a team player is now considered an essential management skill.
14 、According to the article, teamwork developed within companies as a response to
A modern office design.
B changing work practices.
C a reduction in administrative tasks.
D the expansion of international business.
15 、In the third paragraph, Dr Bandy suggests that
A many employees do not enjoy working in teams.
B some managers are not very effective team leaders.
C some teams are created unnecessarily.
D few teams are well organised.
16 、According to the writer, teamwork is more effective in the field of sport because the players
A know what they want to achieve.
B are more competitive by nature.
C have more individual talent.
D can be driven by national pride.
17 、Steve Gardner and Dr Bandy agree that when a business team is created people do notpay enough attention to
A the structure of the team.
B alternatives to the team.
C selecting the team members.
D directing the team's activities.
18、 What is Steve Gardner's advice on operating a successful team?
A Maintain a flexible approach to membership.
B Allow personalities to develop within the team.
C Select people who fit naturally into certain roles.
D Make every effort to avoid conflict between members.